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Tourist movement in Russia emerged in the late XIX century. At the beginning of the XX century individual, disparate societies and clubs united in Russian society tourists (POT) and Russian Mountain Society (RGS), whose members gradually become many thousands of travelers.
In the early days of the campaign can not do a long jump and overcome complex areas requiring a lot of physical stress (such as passes in the mountains, rivers, rapids PA). Do not leave them at the end of the route, when there are signs of fatigue, reduced attention and reaction.
Heavy backpack - "sad" necessity, but we must try to reduce the weight - not at the expense of useful things, and through judicious selection of high-calorie and light products, reliable and lightweight equipment. To facilitate the backpack, and simultaneously help acclimate radial outlets at the beginning of the campaign and the organization zabrosok at intermediate points of the route.
At the height often appear and quickly progressing colds, there is a mountain sickness (headache, drowsiness, apathy, lethargy). All this must be opposed by high-altitude acclimatization. It includes both high-altitude experience gained in the previous campaigns, and specific sequence of elevation on this route, excluding unprepared access to the maximum height.
In sports tourism campaigns, particularly complex, the group has to overcome areas with elevated risk. Completely excluded from the tourism the possibility of accidents is impossible, as it is impossible to exclude the possibility of natural disasters, unforeseen circumstances. But by analyzing these cases, it can be argued that the majority of them was the result of wrong actions of the group and its leader. Therefore, at all stages of the preparation and verification of the group need to put maximum efforts to reduce accidents to zero. But even the most vigorous exercise for the prevention of accidents still can not guarantee complete security. The moment when a group of face-to-face encounter unexpected danger, it alone will have to quickly and accurately assess the situation, take the right decision. And to such unexpected danger in the campaign did not arise, it is necessary not only to plan the route, but it is reasonable to take place.
Complex parts of the route, especially those that are not easily seen with the approach or have several ways, it is necessary to pass a preliminary exploration. Part of the group without load with the necessary equipment to be released for a detailed examination, and sometimes for the treatment of the way. The ski and mountain hiking are the most dangerous areas of the slopes in the area of ​​the passes where possible avalanches.
It must be remembered that the slope of the avalanche danger at least early in the morning and in the morning when the snow masses seized by frost. Going up and down the steep snow slope is best done through the drop of water, it is necessary to avoid undercutting the slope transverse tracks. Camp before going through the pass, it is desirable to break up as high as possible. On the pass rise to 8-9 o'clock in the morning, to allow sufficient time for the descent. The danger of descent in the second half DPJ increased because of fatigue group, likely worsening weather and slopes. Even during the development of a route is recommended to choose to raise a more difficult side of the pass, and for the descent easier. When relatively easy ascent, leaving early and descending the northern slopes can take the pass with descent on the same day. Late exit, a long and difficult ascent and descent along the southern and western slopes it is advisable to spend the night pas pass. To reduce the transit time through complex pass is necessary to select the most experienced and powerful way to process participants (hanging rails, cutting steps, and so on. F.) To approach the whole group do it on the eve of IPT during exploration. On snow-covered glaciers better move early in the morning or at night. Happy to move on them is extremely difficult: prominaetsya snow, snow bridges over the cracks become unreliable.
When rafting safety passage of obstacles have to start with reconnaissance. It should be viewed not only difficult part of the whole, but also scout out everything below the proposed mooring area. In the process of investigation and how to determine the place of insurance, crew actions and fear in an emergency.
One of the most common causes of accidents in the campaign - the neglect of insurance. The group owes its organizonat reliably in all cases where the possibility of self-insurance, samozaderzhaniya, such as failure, is in doubt.
Disregarding insurance (without contacting a rope between them) leads to tragedy. You lose a lot of time and help podospevaet often too late.
In water hikes, even if you know that other groups were given threshold and explored in detail his group owes at all hazardous locations ensure coverage one way or another. Most preferred active ways (another ship). Unlike passive (heaving ropes, "boat" and forced docking) they allow pick up distress a person who can not act alone in the water. If for some reason can not arrange group insurance, it is obliged to refuse to pass the threshold.
Crossing of the river is best to organize early in the morning at low tide, and preferably where they branch out into several branches, flow more easily, which facilitates the choice of a safe ford. Organization hinged crossing, especially in the mountains hardly feasible. This time-consuming operation takes time, which is enough for the approach to the upper gorge, in order to move to the other side of the moraine or glacier. Yes, and bridges on the mountain rivers are.
Halts and accommodations necessary to arrange in a place of safety, if possible protected from the wind. Sometimes you have to sacrifice comfort or camping in an awkward spot, but protected against possible avalanches, rockfalls, flooding. Clear organization bivouac works and faithful implementation by each participant of his duties allow free up more time for rest, recuperation.
Even with a good preparation for the campaign group on the route can lose orientation. Sometimes, in the mountains, especially in poor visibility, the valley received one after another. And here we must be able to make
yourself time to stop, assess the situation, to return at last.
About the consequences of the lack of such qualities in the group and its leader, says the following case. Tourists from Kirov, making a fairly simple hike in the Fan Mountains, lost orientation and instead it is easy to pass Poltava succumbed to the easy one hand pass Saddle Muscovites. On the other side of the pass is very complex: the steep snow-ice slope, full of cracks, removes the glacier Saryhodan. They realized that they were not there, but did not stop, did not come back, do not realize that they do not have sufficient experience and skills. On the descent as a result of unreliable insurance and failure - and killed the head of one of the participants of the tour.

The risk may be justified only when there is no other way out of this situation. 


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